您现在正在浏览: 首页 » 规章制度 » 教学管理制度 » 正文
 

邯郸学院外国语学院毕业论文工作规范

发布时间: 2019-08-18 07:52:49   作者:本站编辑   来源: 本站原创   浏览次数:

 

邯郸学院外国语学院毕业论文工作规范

 

为贯彻实施《邯郸学院毕业论文工作规程》,顺利完成外国语学院院本科毕业生的毕业论文工作,确保毕业论文工作质量,参照邯郸学院有关文件精神,结合其他系部的成功经验,特制订本规范。

一、     毕业论文的环节及时间安排

1、 毕业论文工作分为课题遴选、公布课题、学生选题、查阅资料、开题报告、撰写论文、答辩和成绩评定、毕业论文归档等八个阶段。

2、 外国语学院论文指导教师在第六学期的630前提交论文题目,并向学生公布题目和相关要求,供学生选择;学生可以根据自己的专业兴趣、学术特长进行选题,但每位导师指导学生最多不能超过八名。每位教师提供的题目数量要超过实际指导人数的20%

3、外国语学院最迟于第七学期的十月一日前完成学生毕业论文的选题工作,落实选题的研究内容、参考书目、方法、步骤和进度等,学生在指导教师的指导下填写选题申请表,并向学生下达毕业论文任务书。外国语学院将学生的选题汇总后,按要求填写《外国语学院本科生毕业论文一览表》以备教务处审查及外审。

4、外国语学院于第七学期的1230前完成开题工作,学生提交文献综述报告和开题报告,指导教师填写相应的评语(纸质的开题报告必须手写评语)。

5、学生应于第八学期的第四周完成毕业论文初稿,届时外国语学院要对毕业论文工作进行中期检查,并填写《外国语学院毕业论文工作中期检查统计表》上报教务处。其后每位学生的论文至少经过导师三次批阅。

6、学生于第八学期第十四周前完成毕业论文并交指导教师。并在外国语学院毕业论文指导与答辩委员会的领导下统筹论文评阅工作,由指导教师和论文评阅专家对学生的毕业论文进行评阅,并分别填写《邯郸学院毕业论文指导教师评阅意见书》和《邯郸学院毕业论文专家评阅意见书》。

7、外国语学院于第八学期六月初组织并完成学生毕业论文的答辩工作。外国语学院毕业论文指导与答辩委员会负责审核、确定学生毕业论文的最终成绩评定。

8、外国语学院于第八学期六月中旬前完成院级优秀毕业论文的评审推荐工作,在第八学期六月下旬完成毕业论文工作总结及相关材料的上报工作。

二、课题遴选原则与学生选题要求

1、毕业论文选题须与专业培养目标相符合,体现综合训练的基本要求,有利于巩固、深化和扩充学生所学知识,使学生受到全面的锻炼。选题应根据社会、经济、文化和科技发展的需要,尽可能结合社会实践、生产、科研等任务,尽可能反映学科的前沿问题和热点问题,选择有现实价值和理论意义的课题,能够为地方经济和建设服务的课题不低于40%

2、英语专业和商务英语专业在选题时要有不同的侧重点,贯彻因材施教原则,应考虑学生自身的专业基础、实践水平以及学院当前教学资源的实际情况和学院外相关资源的可利用情况。题目难易程度要适中,以保证学生在一定的时间内充分利用上述资源,经过努力能完成研究和论文写作任务。

3、选题应做到双向选择、课题分配、综合平衡相结合,具体选题方案由外国语学院根据自身具体情况确定。学生在指导教师指导下拟定毕业论文题目后,经教研室研究审定,报外国语学院毕业论文指导与答辩委员会批准后,即可列入选题计划。选题一经确定应及时向学生公布。

4、外国语学院学生的毕业论文必须一人一个题目,杜绝两人或多人同一题目。学生应独立完成各自题目的研究与撰写,严禁抄袭。

5、毕业论文命题要注意避免与历届题目的雷同性,原则上要求近四年内题目不能重复。

6、属于下列情形的题目不宜安排学生做毕业论文:

1)偏离英语专业所学基本理论与基本知识;

2)范围过窄过专,达不到全面训练目的;

3)题目过难或过大过空,学生难以胜任;

4)所需要的教学资源是学院难以提供或院外难以获取的;

5)在规定的毕业论文完成期限内难以完成或不能取得阶段性成果的。

7、选题确定后,原则上不得更改。如因特殊情况需变更,由学生填写邯郸学院毕业论文变更选题申请表,经指导教师同意、外国语学院院长批准,报教务处审批备案后方可变更。

三、 文责要求

凡撰写毕业论文的学生须对自己的毕业论文负责,毕业论文中的引证、引述处须注明出处,在提交的毕业论文中应增设一页关于承诺在毕业论文中没有违反学术道德、学术规范和侵权行为的书面《郑重声明》,毕业论文中没有《郑重声明》的,不能参加论文答辩。

四、 毕业论文的篇幅要求

英语专业毕业论文一般不少于5500词。

五、毕业论文基本撰写规范

(一)毕业论文文本结构组成

1装订成册的毕业论文正式文本由以下几部分组成:(1)封面;  (2) 郑重声明;  (3) 致谢;(4)摘要、关键词;(5)中文页;(6)目录;(7)正文;(8)注释;(9)参考文献;(10)附录。

2、毕业论文相关文本材料有:毕业论文申请书、任务书、文献综述、开题报告书、有指导教师批阅痕迹的论文初稿、毕业论文评语等。

(二)毕业论文结构规范

1、毕业论文封面。封面使用学院统一规范的封面。封面上方题头为“邯郸学院本科毕业论文”;题头下方印制的应填写的各项内容包括:标题、作者、年级、专业、指导教师(包括姓名及职称)、完成时间。封面排版格式:题头字使用小初加粗华文新魏字体,上空一行,下空两行;各项名称使用四号黑体字,填写内容用仿宋四号字;落款使用三号华文新魏字。各项内容均居中。

2、郑重声明。郑重声明应放在封面后页,郑重声明的内容为:本人的毕业论文是在指导教师×××的指导下独立撰写并完成的。毕业论文没有剽窃、抄袭、造假等违反学术道德、学术规范和侵权行为,本人愿意承担由此产生的各种后果,直至法律责任;并可以通过网络接受公众查询。特此郑重声明。郑重声明排版格式:题目“郑重声明”使用三号宋体加粗居中,上、下各空一行;正文使用四号宋体,单倍行距;正文下空五行接作者签名,作者签名必须由作者本人手签。

3、致谢(Acknowledgements)致谢是对课题研究与论文撰写过程中曾直接给予帮助的人员(例如指导教师、答疑教师及其他人员)表示谢意,这不仅是礼貌,也是对他人劳动的尊重,是治学者应有的思想作风。所用文字要简洁,切忌浮夸和庸俗之词。Acknowledgements一词单独一行,小四号黑体字居中。正文五号Times New Roman,单倍行距。

4、摘要和关键词(英文页)。以 “Abstract”居中,不加标点符号,独立成行;英文摘要约含250个实词。摘要是毕业论文内容不加注释和评论的简短陈述。摘要主要是说明研究的目的、方法、结果和结论。摘要应具有独立性和自含性,即不必阅读毕业论文就能获得必要的信息,供读者确定有无必要阅读全文;摘要中应当用第三人称记述论文的性质和主题,不使用“我”、“我们”等作为主语,应采用“对…进行了研究”、“报告了…现状”、“进行了…调查”等表达方式;要排除在本学科领域已成为常识的内容;书写要合乎逻辑关系,尽量与正文的文体保持一致;结构要严谨,表达要简明,语义要确切,一般不分段落;商品名需要时应加注学名;对某些缩略语、简称、代号等,除了相邻专业的读者也能清楚理解以外,在首次出现处必须加以说明;摘要中通常不用图表以及非公知公用的符号和术语。

关键词以 “Key  words”不缩进开头,空3个字符后,不加标点符号接具体关键词;两个关键词之间空2个字符,不加标点符号。

英文页的标题使用Times New Roman 字体,二号加粗居中;摘要中的“Abstract”、关键词中的“Key Words ”使用Times New Roman 字体,小四号加粗;正文使用小四号Times New Roman字体,1.5倍行距。

5、摘要和关键词(中文页)。中文页中的标题的含义应与论文(设计)的英文标题含义相同,字数一般不超过10个实词。中文摘要的内容比照英文摘要的内容要求执行;中文摘要前加摘要”两字,小四号宋体加粗,缩进2字符,两字之间空1个字符;两字之后无冒号,空三个字符后接摘要正文;摘要正文的字数约为300字,使用小四号楷体字,1.5倍行距。

关键词部分是为了文献标引,从论文中选取出来,用以表示全文主题内容信息的单词或术语。关键词部分所含关键词的个数为3-5个。关键词通常应按研究的对象、性质(问题)和采取的手段排序。关键词前加关键词”三个字,使用小四号宋体加粗,缩进2字符,三字之间不空格,三字之后无冒号,空三个字符后接关键词正文;关键词正文使用小四号楷体字;两个关键词之间应留出一个汉字的空间,不加任何标点符号。

关键词排在摘要的下方,中间空一行。

6、目录。目录由毕业论文文本结构组成的各部分内容的顺序号、名称和页码组成,另页打印装订。目录应该用“…………”连接名称与页码;“摘要”、“Abstract”两个名称之前无序号。目录排版格式:“Contents”一词使用三号黑体字,加粗居中,上下各空一行;正文使用四号Times New Roman,单倍行距。

7、正文。毕业论文的正文包括标题、Introduction(引言)、Body(正文)Conclusion(结论) 四个主要部分,以及Notes(后注)

论文标题使用三号Times New Roman 字体加粗居中。标题下按5号字空一行。正文使用五号宋体字,单倍行距。正文中的一级标题使用小四号黑体字,首行缩进两个字符空间,上下各按五号字空一行。二级标题使用五号黑体字,首行缩进两个字符空间。其它级别的标题与正文相同。

正文内容序号的层次一般以阿拉伯数字连续编号,最多为4级,(如:1   1.1  ……  1.1.1.1),之后先以括号为序,如(1),(2)…;再以半括号为序,如1),2)…。

1)标题包括正标题和副标题。正标题要求以最恰当、最简明的词语反映论文中最重要的特定内容的逻辑组合,做到文、题贴切。题名中不得使用非规范的缩略词、符号、代号和公式,通常不采用问话的方式。标题所用的每一词语必须考虑到有助于选择关键词和编制题录、索引等二次文献可以检索的特定使用信息。中文标题字数一般不超过20个字,英文标题一般不超过10个实词,中英文标题应一致,居中编排格式。

2Introduction(引言)

Introduction(引言)主要说明研究工作的目的、范围,对前人工作的评述以及理论分析、研究设想、研究方法和实验设计,预期结果和意义等。该部分应有一定数量的文字叙述。

3Body(正文)

正文是毕业论文的核心部分,占据主要篇幅。正文通常由34章构成,各章节之间是并列或递进关系,有论点和论据来支撑论文题目。

4)结论

结论指文章最终的、总体的结果的陈述,是对整个研究工作进行归纳和综合。结论应当准确、完整、明确、精练。如果确实不可能导出明确的结论,也可以没有结论而进行必要的讨论。此外,还应阐述本课题研究中存在的问题及进一步开展研究的见解和建议。

5注释

此项属任选项目。这是作者认为不宜在正文中出现的对论文中某一问题、概念、观点、结论等的简单解释、说明、评价或提示等内容。注释的顺序号为①,②等符号,注释正文使用五号楷体字。正文中以右上标形式标注顺序号。

8、参考文献。文后的参考文献是毕业论文的重要组成部分。所列出的文献应当是作者亲自阅读或引用过的,不应简单转录他人文后的文献。在写资料出处时一定要亲自核实,不要出现任何差错,指导教师与评阅专家应进行核实查对,以保证其真实可靠。所引用的文献,应是公开出版的刊物,内部刊物一般不引用。要注意引用最新文献。

注释下按五号字空一行接参考文献。“Bibliography”单独一行,缩进两个字符,使用五号宋体字加粗;参考文献正文使用五号宋体字。

参考文献的著录,按著录/题名/出版事项顺序排列:

期刊——著者.题名.期刊名称,出版年,卷号(没有者省去),期号,起止页码。

书籍——著者.书名.版次(注:第一版不标注).出版地,出版者,出版年。

论文集——著者.题名.学术会议名称,地点,时间.出版地,出版者,出版年:起止页码。

互联网站上的文章——著者.题名.网址.访问时间。

参考文献顺序号用[1][2]等字符,顺序号后空一个字符,顺序号与“参考文献”排齐。

正文中标注引用的参考文献时,以上标形式标注顺序号。

9、附录。为了材料的完整性,不宜编入正文、又能比正文提供更多的信息、研究方法以及深入性的内容,可考虑编写附录。

附录主要包括以下内容:研究方法和技术的更深入的叙述;以备查读方便所需的辅助性工具或表格;重复性数据图表;使用的主要符号、意义、单位、缩写、程序全文及说明等。

附录序号用大写正体英文字母ABC……编序号,如:附录A

附录中的图、表、式、参考文献等另行编序号,与正文分开,也一律用阿拉伯数字编码,但在编码前冠以附录序码,如:图A1;表B2;式(B3);文献[A5]等。

10、文献综述(开题报告中的Literature Review 部分)。文献综述是培养学生独立从事学术研究能力,特别是培养学生检索、搜集、整理、综合利用学术文献资料,根据所研究课题对文献资料进行有效的归纳、分析、总结能力,从而提高毕业论文质量的有效途径。所有毕业生在撰写毕业论文时必须完成毕业论文文献综述。

    ⑴文献综述是指学生在毕业论文研究课题或研究题目确定后,通过搜集、整理、阅读国内外相关学术文献资料,就与该课题或题目直接相关的主要研究成果、学术意义、研究方法、研究动态、最新进展等问题进行归纳总结、综合分析后所做的简要评述。

⑵文献综述所评述的学术文献必须与学生所撰写毕业论文的相关参考文献相一致,必须对可能影响所撰写毕业论文主要论点、政策建议或反驳依据等主要学术结论的相关文献及其主要论断做出清晰、准确、流畅的说明,必须保证综述本身结构的完整性,能够反映学生利用学术文献的综合能力。

⑶文献综述是学生撰写毕业论文过程的有机组成部分,必须在论文指导教师的指导下完成,一般应在1000字以上。未完成毕业论文文献综述的学生不得参加毕业论文答辩。

⑷文献综述所评述的文献应与毕业论文的论题直接相关,一般应涉及毕业论文中的所有参考文献;重要论点、论据不得以教材、非学术性文献、未发表文献作为参考文献;除非第一手资料散佚,否则,不得以第二手资料作为参考文献。

⑸文献综述中所涉及的文献如果在毕业论文参考文献中已有详细、清楚的说明,只需说明文献的作者和名称,在参考文献中无法说明的与文献的采用有直接关联的问题,如版本问题,翻译问题等,应在文献综述中加以说明。文献综述原则上不采用注释,如确需注释者,应随文说明,不再另加脚注或尾注。

文献综述的字体、字号、序号等应与毕业论文完全一致,文献综述与毕业论文同为学生毕业资格审核的基本文献,作为开题报告的重要组成部分,为永久性保存文档,学生应同时提供开题报告的纸质和电子文档。

11、开题报告。开题报告主要由文献综述和论文提纲构成。确定选题之后,学生在调查研究的基础上撰写文献综述之后,对未来的论文研究进行计划并得出预期结论。论文提纲中各章节之间要有相应的逻辑关系以充分说明问题,在提纲之后要有主要参考文献等。

12毕业论文评语。即指导记录表、指导教师评阅意见书、专家评阅意见书、答辩记录表、答辩登记表。

六、毕业论文打印格式

(一)打印及纸张

毕业论文采用计算机单页打印,单倍行距、标点符号用半角。使用A4规格的纸张,边距规定如下:

左边距3.0cm,右边距、上边距、下边距均为2.0cm;左侧装订。

(二)字体及字号

此处给出的是毕业论文除封面外的部分中使用字体与字号。

论文题目……………………………黑体三号居中

作者姓名…………………………………Times New Roman五号居中

“摘要”字样………………………Times New Roman小四号加粗

摘要正文……………………………楷体小四号

“关键词”字样……………………Times New Roman小四号加粗

关键词正文…………………………楷体小四号

论文正文

第一层次的题序和标题……………黑体小四号

第二层次的题序和标题……………Times New Roman五号加粗

第三层次的题序和标题……………Times New Roman五号

第四层次的题序和标题……………Times New Roman五号

第五层次的题序和标题……………Times New Roman五号

论文正文……………………………Times New Roman五号

页码…………………………………五号居中

七、毕业论文答辩程序

1、学生在论文答辩会举行之前一周将已经过指导教师评阅审定的毕业论文(一式三份)交答辩委员会,答辩委员会交由专家评阅;经专家评阅、评定成绩并得到专家同意后,该生取得答辩资格。

2、答辩小组拟出答辩时需要提问的问题后,举行答辩会。

3、答辩会上,先由学生用10-15分钟时间概述论文的题目以及选择该论题的理由,并比较详细地介绍论文的主要论点、论据和写作体会。答辩教师提问。答辩教师至少提三个问题,提问后可以允许学生独立准备5分钟后再作答,也可要求学生不做准备、当场立即作答。回答问题可以是对话式的,也可以是答辩教师一次性提出所有问题,学生按顺序逐一作答。根据学生回答的具体情况,答辩教师随时可以有适当的插问。

4、学生对全部问题回答完毕,答辩教师根据论文质量和答辩情况,商定该答辩能否获得通过,并拟定成绩和评语。

5、由答辩小组组长(或称答辩主席)当面向学生就论文和答辩过程中的情况加以小结,肯定其优点和长处,指出其错误或不足之处,并加以必要的补充和指点,同时当面向学生宣布答辩是否获得通过。

八、毕业论文存档要求

1、整理后的毕业论文所包含的内容及顺序如下: a. 封面;b. 郑重声明;c. 致谢;d.摘要和关键词(英文页);e.摘要和关键词(中文页);f.目录; g. 论文正文(包括注释、参考文献、和必要的附录)。

3、学生应将装订成册的毕业论文连同设计任务书、开题报告书、指导教师评阅意见书、专家评阅意见书、答辩登记表、答辩过程记录表、有指导教师批阅痕迹的论文初审稿一份全部放入学校统一印制的本科学生毕业论文专用袋内,交指导教师汇总、清点无误后交所在系进行统一存档。

4、毕业论文装订顺序为:封面——郑重声明——致谢——摘要、关键词——中文页——目录——论文正文——注释——参考文献——附录。

5、毕业论文其它相关材料组成及整理顺序:毕业论文任务书—开题报告书——评语(包括指导记录表、指导教师评阅意见书、专家评阅意见书、答辩记录表、答辩登记表)——有指导教师批阅痕迹的论文初审稿一份以上毕业论文相关材料各系可根据实际情况进行整理或装订,加粗部分为各系必备文件。

6、各系将毕业论文及其相关材料整理齐全后,装入学校统一印制的档案袋中。

7、各系全部毕业论文的电子版:论文(设计)及按照顺序号、论文题目、学生姓名、页码编制的目录。

九、优秀毕业论文评选办法

(一)参评范围及比例

1.凡我院全日制本科毕业生的毕业论文均在参评之列。

2.学生毕业论文一般优秀率不超过毕业论文总数的15%;在成绩为优秀的毕业论文中评选院级优秀毕业论文,比例不超过毕业论文总数的3%

(二)院级优秀毕业论文评选标准

院级优秀毕业论文(设计)应符合以下标准:

1.毕业论文总成绩优秀,选题科学,符合本专业培养目标要求。

2.能够较好地体现本专业基本知识、基本技能的综合应用。

3.有一定学术水平和独到见解,毕业论文的观点和方法具有创新性。

4.毕业论文设计成果有较好的实用(参考)价值,或有一定潜在的经济效益。

(三)评选的组织

评选工作在外国语学院院长,毕业论文工作领导小组组长领导下进行。

1.指导教师或答辩小组结合毕业论文评审、答辩工作进行初步推荐,被推荐的论文由指导教师写出点评意见(一般不少于150),并填写邯郸学院优秀毕业论文推荐表

2.经各系讨论同意后报二外国语学院,由外国语学院院长组织毕业论文指导与答辩委员会按照参评条件进行初步审定。

3.经外国语学院初步审查写出评审意见后,将参评学生名单、学生论文、推荐表及其他有关资料送教务处。

(四)时间要求及上报材料

1.各系部要按时上报评选学生名单和材料,时间为规定毕业学期的第十六周。

2.上报材料应包括:

①优秀毕业论文推荐表。

②毕业论文打印文稿一份,完整毕业论文电子版一份。

(五)奖励办法

凡被评选为优秀毕业论文的学生,邯郸学院将颁发证书和奖品,并将获奖论文编入《邯郸学院优秀毕业论文选》。

十、毕业论文的保存与工作总结

1、毕业论文答辩工作结束后,将毕业论文的全部资料统一收齐,装袋封存。保存期为十年。

2、毕业论文工作结束后,相关负责教师应认真进行书面总结。总结的内容包括:对学生毕业论文基本情况的统计分析;本单位执行毕业论文管理规范的情况、意见和建议, 以及对提高毕业论文质量有显著效果的做法;毕业论文工作过程中存在的问题及改进措施(意见)等。

3、外国语学院于第八学期末向教务处提交全院毕业论文工作总结。

 

 

 


邯郸学院本科生毕业论文课题申请表

 

系、部(二级学院):                              时间:        

课题名称

英文:

中文:

学生姓名

 

专业

 

年级

 

指导教师

 

课题来源

A.参考目录内 B. 参考目录外

课题类别

A.设计        B.论文

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

参考

文献

 

 

教研室

审题意见

 

系指导小组审题意见

 

 

 

 

组长签字:                  

学院领导小组意见

 

 

 

                   组长签字:                   

 

 

邯郸学院毕业论文任务书

 

系别

 

专业

 

班级

 

姓名

 

性别

 

学号

 

论文(设计)题目

英文:

中文:

指导教师姓名

 

职称

 

所在单位

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

指导教师签字:                       

 

进程安排

起止时间

完成内容

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

意见

 

 

 

                         系主任签字:                         

                           

                                       学院领导小组组长签字:

注:本表一式两份,学生、学院各存档一份。

 

 

 

B.A. Thesis Proposal

学士学位论文开题报告

 

 

 

 

 

 


邯郸学院外国语学院

School of Foreign Languages of Handan College

 

论文题目:                                                                

 

Title                                                                   

  

    业:                                                          

 

指导教师                                                             

    级:                                                           

 

    号:                                                           

 

     名:                                                              

    期:                                                             

指导教师意见:

 

 

 

指导教师(签名)

         期:

 

邯郸学院毕业论文指导记录表

 

论文题目

英文:

中文:

作者姓名

 

所属二级学院、系(部)专业、年级

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         指导教师(签名):                                

         

 

注:此表应由学生根据指导教师指导意见(包括工作中存在的问题、改进建议及后续工作的建议等)整理归纳填写,最后由指导教师审查签名。

研究与写作指导记录每周不少于一次
 

邯郸学院本科毕业生毕业论文工作中期检查统计表

            

二级学院、系(部):                     专业:                         

毕业班:200   届 学生人数:200   级本科      人,200   级专接本     

被检查学生数:        检查日期:200           日—       

           

数据统计(篇数)

A

B

C

D

选题质量

01选题符合专业培养目标,体现综合训练基本要求

 

 

 

 

02题目难易度

 

 

 

 

03题目工作量

 

 

 

 

04理论意义或实际意义

 

 

 

 

开题报告

05写作水平

 

 

 

 

06写作规范

 

 

 

 

设计任务书

07写作水平与写作规范

 

 

 

 

写作进度

08论文(设计)进度与开题报告中计划进度的符合度

 

 

 

 

选题变动情况

09经批准变动选题共(    )篇;未经批准变动选题共(    )篇

指导教师资格

10正高职(   )人,副高职(   )人,中职(   )人,助教参与(   )人

教师指导人数

11具备指导资格的教师人均(   )篇;最多(   )篇/

/生情况

12一人一题(   )篇;二或三人一题(   )篇;三人以上一题(   )篇

情况说明(是否有不具备指导资格的人员指导论文(设计)情况;变动选题的理由;查阅文献情况;有无异常情况;二级学院、系(部)、教研室、指导教师对教务处的意见和建议等)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

填表人                 

二级学院、系(部)院长(主任)                                

注:1.为了加强毕业论文写作的过程管理,各二级学院、系(部)可自拟表格对学生毕业论文进行中期检查。

2. 此表应在学生正式开题后第4周上交教务处,届时学生应该撰写完毕业论文初稿


 

 

毕业论文指导教师评阅意见书

论文题目

英文:

中文:

作者姓名

 

所属教学单位、专业、年级

 

指导教师姓名

 

指导教师职称

 

评审项目

评审要素

评审内涵

满分

指导教师实评分

选题质量25%

目的明确

符合要求

选题符合专业培养目标,体现学科、专业特点和教学计划的基本要求,达到毕业论文综合训练的目的。

10

 

理论意义或

实际价值

符合本学科的理论发展,有一定的学术意义;对经济建设和社会发展的应用性研究中的某个理论或方法问题进行研究,具有一定的实际价值。

10

 

选题恰当

题目规模适当,难易度适中;有一定的科学性。

5

 

能力水平40%

查阅文献

资料能力

能独立查阅相关文献资料,归纳总结本论文所涉及的有关研究状况及成果。

10

 

综合运用

知识能力

能运用所学专业知识阐述问题;能对查阅的资料进行整理和运用;能对其科学论点进行论证。

10

 

研究方案的

设计能力

整体思路清晰;研究方案合理可行。

5

 

研究方法和手段的运用能力

能运用本学科常规研究方法及相关研究手段(如计算机、实验仪器设备等)进行实验、实践并加工处理、总结信息。

10

 

外文应用

能力

能阅读、翻译一定量的本专业外文资料、外文摘要和外文参考书目(特殊专业除外)体现一定的外语水平。

5

 

论文质量35%

文题相符

较好地完成论文选题的目的要求。

5

 

写作水平

论点鲜明;论据充分;条理清晰;语言流畅。

15

 

写作规范

符合学术论文的基本要求。用语、格式、图表、数据、量和单位、各种资料引用规范化、符合标准。

10

 

论文篇幅

文科10000字左右,理科8000字左右,体育、艺术类6000字左右,外语5500词左右。

5

 

实评总分                                    成绩等级                           

 

指导教师评审意见:

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                     

   是否同意答辩:                                 指导教师签名:

               

说明:评定成绩分为优秀、良好、中等、及格、不及格五个等级,实评总分90100分记为优秀,8089分记为良好,7079分记为中等,6069分记为及格,60分以下记为不及格。

毕业论文专家评阅意见书

论文题目

英文:

中文:

作者姓名

 

所属教学单位、专业、年级

 

指导教师姓名

 

指导教师职称

 

评审项目

评审要素

评审内涵

满分

专家实

评分

选题质量25%

目的明确

符合要求

选题符合专业培养目标,体现学科、专业特点和教学计划的基本要求,达到毕业论文综合训练的目的。

10

 

理论意义或

实际价值

符合本学科的理论发展,有一定的学术意义;对经济建设和社会发展的应用性研究中的某个理论或方法问题进行研究,具有一定的实际价值。

10

 

选题恰当

题目规模适当,难易度适中;有一定的科学性。

5

 

能力水平40%

查阅文献

资料能力

能广泛查阅相关文献资料,归纳总结本论文所涉及的有关研究状况及成果。

10

 

综合运用

知识能力

能运用所学专业知识阐述问题;能对查阅的资料进行整理和运用;能对其科学论点进行论证。

10

 

研究方案的

设计能力

整体思路清晰;研究方案合理可行。

5

 

研究方法和手段的运用能力

能运用本学科常规研究方法及相关研究手段(如计算机、实验仪器设备等)进行实验、实践并加工处理、总结信息。

10

 

外文应用

能力

能阅读、翻译一定量的本专业外文资料、外文摘要和外文参考书目(特殊专业除外)体现一定的外语水平。

5

 

论文质量35%

文题相符

较好地完成论文选题的目的要求。

5

 

写作水平

论点鲜明;论据充分;条理清晰;语言流畅。

15

 

写作规范

符合学术论文的基本要求。用语、格式、图表、数据、量和单位、各种资料引用规范化、符合标准。

10

 

论文篇幅

文科10000字左右,理科8000字左右,体育、艺术类6000字左右,外语5500词左右。

5

 

实评总分                                    成绩等级                           

 

专家评审意见:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      是否同意答辩:                                 专家签名:

               

说明:评定成绩分为优秀、良好、中等、及格、不及格五个等级,实评总分90100分记为优秀,8089分记为良好,7079分记为中等,6069分记为及格,60分以下记为不及格。


邯郸学院本科毕业论文答辩记录表

 

论文题目

英文:

中文:

作者姓名

 

所属教学单位、专业、年级

 

指导教师姓名

 

指导教师职称

 

       

时间

 

地点

 

答辩小组

成员

 

职务(职称)

 

职务(职称)

 

职务(职称)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

答辩中提出的主要问题及回答的简要情况记录:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                               

 

答辩组长(签名):                                 记录人(签名):      

                

                     

 

邯郸学院本科毕业论文答辩登记表

 

论文题目

英文:

中文:

作者姓名

 

所属教学单位、专业、年级

 

指导教师姓名

 

指导教师职称

 

答辩小组

成员

 

职务(职称)

 

职务(职称)

 

职务(职称)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

答辩组答辩意见:

 

 

 

 

 

 

                     

 

答辩组长(签名):

               

指导教师评定成绩

 

专家评定成绩

 

论文答辩成绩

 

论文总成绩

 

二级学院、系(部)意见:

 

 

                         答辩委员会主席签名(加盖二级学院或系部公章)

           

                         

 

 

邯郸学院优秀毕业论文 (设计)推荐表

 

论文题目

英文:

中文:

学生姓名

 

所属教学单位、专业、年级

 

指导教师

 

  

 

论文摘要

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

指导教师推荐意见:           

 

 

 

 

                                                      

                                                     指导教师签名:              

系指导与答辩委员会推荐意见

 

 

 

                           委员会主席签名:               

院专家组意见

 

                                                         

 

 

                                              专家组组长签名:               

 

邯郸学院毕业论文变更选题申请表

 

     

 

所属教学单位、专业、年级

 

指导教师

 

  

 

   

 

变更后题目

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

学生本人签字:

 

       

 

指导教师

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                       

意见

 

 

 

负责人签名(加盖系公章):

        

 

 

负责人签名(加盖教务处公章):

 

                                                      

         

注:此表一式两份,签字盖章后,教务处和相关教学单位各存一份。

 

 

 

 
  对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 华文新魏二号空一行。

 

 


封面范例

 

邯郸学院本科毕业论文

 

       
    对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 华文新魏小初,加粗,空两行。
  对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 黑体四号,加粗,居中。
 

 

 

 


       论《织工马南》中的象征意义

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 填写内容使用四号仿宋字对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 与题目对齐,黑体四号,加粗。       冯树华

       014001062018

指导教师   魏晓红  教授         

       2006

       英语

二级学院   外国语学院         

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 黑体四号,加粗,空四行。             

 

 

 

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 华文新魏三号,居中。 


邯郸学院外国语学院

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 华文新魏三号,居中20105

 

 

 

 

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 宋体三号空一行郑重声明范例:

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 宋体三号加粗居中              

郑重声明

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 宋体三号空一行 


     本人的毕业论文是在指导教师         的指导下独立撰写完成的。如有剽窃、抄袭、造假等违反学术道德、学术规范和侵权的行为,本人愿意承担由此产生的各种后果,直至法律责任,并愿意通过网络接受公众的监督。特此郑重声明。

 

       
    对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 正文宋体四号
 
  对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 宋体四号空五行

 

 

 

 


                 

 

毕业论文作者(签名):

                                               

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
  对话气泡: 矩形: 说明:郑重声明要求单独一页,“作者签名”必须由作者本人手签。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Abstract示范

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 为Times New Roman 小四号加粗,居中。Abstract

 

As a great critical writer of the Victorian era, George Eliot makes great contribution to the detailed description of the consciousness and thought of the time. While inheriting and developing the writing traditions, Eliot makes great progress and innovation in the writing skills. In Silas Marner, Eliot uses the symbolism widely. The symbolism not only makes the novel meaningful, but also gives more implications. Thus understanding the symbolism in Silas Marner holds an important position in revealing the significance of the novel. It also helps the readers understand the theme of this novel thoroughly.

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 摘要内容Times New Roman体小四号。This thesis aims to provide an intensive analysis of symbolism in Silas Marner in three aspects. Firstly, it studies the skilled usage of symbolism in different characters, which falls into two groups separately: the male characters and the female characters. Through these discussions, the theme of the novel is exposed. The second chapter analyzes the symbolism of objects, including the loom, the gold, and the open door. It plays a big role in understanding the novel better. Finally, the paper explores the symbolism of the natural environment in Silas Marner. This analysis will provide an effective way with the readers to learn the social backgrounds when the events happen in the novel.

 

Key words:   symbolism   characters   objects   natural environment

                        

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: Times New Roman体小四号加粗,不缩进,后空三个字符                                                      

 

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: Times New Roman体小四号,两个关键词之间空两个字符 

 

 

 

 

 

 


摘要示范:

 

 

 

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 宋体小四号加粗,居中,“摘要”两字之间空两字符。作为维多利亚时代一位伟大的作家,乔治·艾略特在展现那个时代的形态和精神风貌方面取得了很大的成就。在继承和发扬传统的现实主义写作风格的同时,艾略特在写作技巧方面有创新和突破。其中,象征主义在《织工马南》中被运用得淋漓尽致。象征主义的运用不仅使小说本身意义更加深远, 而且提供了更多的隐含意义。因此,分析小说中象征主义的思想在揭示小说的主题思想中占有举足轻重的地位。

对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 摘要正文楷体小四号。这篇论文从三方面对《织工马南》中的象征意义进行透彻的分析。第一章分析象征主义在人物方面的运用,从而揭示小说的主题思想;第二章讨论小说主要物件如织布机,金子和敞开的门所隐含的象征意义,帮助读者正确地理解小说;最后一章通过对天气和植物的分析,进一步阐述了小说中自然环境的象征意义。本研究对正确,深入的理解小说的内涵及其所处时代背景具有重要的意义。

 

关键词象征主义  人物  物件  自然环境

 

 

 

       
    对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 楷体五号,两个关键词中间空一个汉字空间
  对话气泡: 圆角矩形: 宋体小四号加粗,缩进两个字符,后空三个字符。
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


目录示范:

 

 

Contents

 

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………..…………….….…..…i

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………….....ii

Abstract(Chinese).………………………………………...………………...…………….iii

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………....1

Chapter One The Symbolism of Characters……………………………………………..3

1.1 The Male Characters.………………………………………………………….…....3

1.2 The Female Characters…………………………………………………….……...5

Chapter Two The Symbolism of Objects……………………….……….…….……7

2.1 The Loom and the Gold…………………………………………………….……...7

   2.2 The House………………………………………………………………………....8

2.3 The Open Door..............................................................................….........................9

Chapter Three The Symbolism of the Natural Environment………………………..11

3.1 The Climate………………………………………..………………………………11

3.2 The Plants.................................................................................................................12

Conclusion ............................................................................…..................................14

Notes…………………………………………………........................................................15

Bibliography............................................................................….......................................16


正文示范:

Introduction

 

George Eliot, the critical writer of Victorian era in the 19th century, occupies a serious position in the English literature history, with the well-known works such as The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), and Middlemarch (1871-72). Among so many great writers, she stands out for her insightful psychological writing perspective, which has paved way for modern character portrayals. Silas Marner, last and shortest of rustic novels, is regarded as the “mine masterpiece”. It depicts the lifelong ups and downs of a poor man who lives on weaving.

As a member of the trio of critical realism (the other two being Dickens and Thackeray), and one of the most valuable Victorian writers, George Eliot and her works have caught high attentions from the critics and readers all over the world. Thus she is a hot focus of Victorian study concerned by researchers. Among her great works, distinguished by the pure description, wonderful writing endowment and further influence, Silas Marner is appreciated as the classic work. As soon as it came out, the novel had been overwhelmed numbers of reviews.

In The Great Tradition written by F. R. Leavis, a great English critic, he describes her “traditional moral sensibility, her humorous intelligence” and puts that “She is not as transcendentally great as Tolstoy, but she is great, and great in the same way.” At the same time, he lists George Eliot into the trio great English literary writers.

Different from the contemporary writers in 19th century, George Eliot is well-known for her deep exploration on the ethic and morality. This characteristic has captured much more attention of researchers.

Hou Weirui, in “The History of English Literature” points out that ethic and morality apparently go through in Silas Marner. In Eliot’s mind, it is the deceptive and wick external elements that lead to the poor life of Marner in the early time. Luckily, depending on the normal and pure relationship between people, he heals from the misery.

In addition, Yuan Cuizhen, a professor specializing in the English and American literature, focuses on the study of the formation of George Eliot’s ethic morality in the article “On the Artistic Expression of George Eliot’s Ethic Morality”. Despising the traditional rules and standards of ethic morality, Eliot insists on a brave pursuit of the humanitarian spirit. Eliot believes in “responsibility”. Just as in Silas Marner, after losing his gold, Marner converts his love to little Eppie, pouring his all life to love her. This kind of love, in other words, is a wonderful explanation of “responsibility”. All of Eliot’s complex and smooth thoughts contribute a lot to her profound psychological description.

As a humanitarian, Eliot inclines to show her sympathy on the commons, with the works filled with sadness. With the help of wonderful psychological description, Eliot presents vivid pictures of the true life of the common people. The History of English Literature edited in Russia, analyzes that the comparison between the poor craftsmen and landlords is the basement of Silas Marner. The poor is worth respect with noble heart; on the contrary, landlords are immoral. Compared with the fighting will and great favor possessed by the honored novelists, such as Dickens and Thackeray, the critical realism of Eliot looks prosaic. From Eliot’s point of view, only the plainness is the classical. She pursuits a principle of coherence and order in the world. Different from the sharp critical realism, the realism used by Eliot is the so-called “mild realism”. Eliot always tries to describe the everyday life and psychology of individuals ignoring the great political events, the specifically history background. This is the reflection of limitation of the time.

Grown up in the atmosphere of religion, Eliot pours a certain reflection of the religious thought in her novels. Han Ruijuan, “An Exploration into the Characters in Silas Marner”, expresses Eliot’s religious disbelief in her novel. She opposes the dogmatic and the superhuman of Christianity. She appeals that the religion poisons human beings in an unimaginable degree. Everyone should believe in himself, not, blindly, turning to the God for help. Cui Dong also discusses Eliot’s doubt for the religion in Silas Marner. Humanity dominates in Eliot’s writings, advocating love, sympathy for the human beings.

Besides, in the essay “The Influence of Feuerbach’s Religions Thought on George Eliot as Shown in Silas Marner”, Ma Li analyzes the religious and moral attitude and compares hers with Feuerbach’s. He argues that Eliot is in agreement with Feuerbach’s religion. She supports the idea that divinity is humanity. What’s more, divinity is the purity of humanity. On one hand, being an excellent intellectual, she can not accept Christianity without any struggle. On the other hand, she can not get rid of the religious product of the time as well.

Apart from these, attracted by Eliot’s charming artistic writing features, some researchers devote themselves into the study of analysis of the features in her novel.

According to History and Anthology of English Literature edited by Wu Weiren, which praises “her psychological insight into the development of character, her flair for country scenes and speech, her fine sense of fun, and the narrative interest of her novel gave her a general popularity not common to didactic novelists.”1 It is apparent that Eliot has a gift of language which others cannot catch.

In the paper “Irony in Silas Marner”, Liao Hui puts that in the novel, irony is not only employed as a rhetoric method, but also a principle of literary creation. In the method of irony, Eliot attacks coldly the artificial ethic authority governed by the Institutional Church, exposing the theme of the novel.

Moreover, Ma Jianjun, in “George Eliot Studies” pays more attention in the usage of symbolism in Silas Marner. He sums up that George Eliot evaluates the value of the characters by using the skilled method of symbolism. Many detailed descriptions constitute her key special metaphers and symbols in her literature world.

Li An’s, The Foreign Literature Studies, analyzes the theme of loneliness in Silas Marner. By depicting three important incidents happened in Marner’s lifetime, it tells the ugly feature of Protestant and money-making business of early industry civilization at the beginning of the 19th century. Only by building an ethic morality in the centre of human being can it be possible to create a beautiful welfare society.

Based on the study of the provided reports, essays and journals, national or international, this paper aims to analyze the symbolism in Silas Marner from three aspects: the characters, the objects, and the natural environment. And this analysis will provide an effective way with the readers to reveal the theme hidden in the novel.

 

 

Chapter One  The Symbolism of Characters

 

In novels, characters as the main factors to stimulate the development of the plot constitute the most important part in the story. The symbolism of the characters is worth studying, since it contributes to exposing the theme of the novel as well as its significant meaning. Nearly every character in novels can serve a symbol or metaphor. Symbolism of characters is widely used in Silas Marner.

1.1 The Male Characters

Silas Marner leads its life in 1861, which is so near of the time of the Industrial Revolution. The whole story is arranged around two families: Silas Marner and the Cass family.

Silas Marner is in no way the main character and protagonist of the story. He is a symbol of the poor working class in the Industrial Revolution. A lot of special characteristics of the lower class are described clearly and vividly in Silas by means of symbolism.

Firstly, he is the symbol of the lower class, specially suffering serious persecution of the religion. The workers are one of the weakest classes at that time. They pay the most labor and energy but get the least. Once suffering from the persecution, they even have no chance or ability to revolt. Maybe it is the reason that contributes a lot to the oppression from the upper class. This point is well proved by the experience of Silas Marner. Being betrayed by his best friend, Silas is falsely accused by the church. Here, the poor man does not get any sympathy, not to say fair adjustment. At first, Silas is sure that the God will prove his honesty, but now he is utterly wrong, “There is no just God that governs the earth righteously, but a God of lie, that bears witness against the innocent.”2 This also uncovers the hypocritical nature of the old religion. The silly method of drawing lots to decide what has happened now leads that Silas loses both his love and his religious faith. Finally, he is driven from his hometown.

Secondly, Silas Marner symbolizes the strong loneliness existing notably among the working class. Living at the bottom of the society, not only do the workers have to suffer the oppression from the upper class but also the persecution of the religion. In other words, nothing is left to them but endless loneliness. In the novel, the most profound description about Silas’s loneliness is his obsession with the gold. Isolated himself from the outside, Silas seems to be lonely enough to have nothing to care about but his gold. “He handled them, he counted them, till their form and color were like the satisfaction of a thirsty to him, but it was only in the night, when his work was done, that he drew them out to enjoy their companion.” 3 Then a vivid figure of a miser appears in front of the readers. Silas’s crazy fancy for the gold deeply reflects the loneliness hidden in the inner world of the poor weaver. In fact, the weaver is too lonely to have something companion him. Moreover, this kind of loneliness, like a sharp sword, hurts the hearts of the lower class adults. On the other hand, it also reveals the darkness of the society in the 19th-century England.

Finally, the kindheartedness, which is the nature of the working class also been detailed reflected from Silas. Silas is a kind and simple-minded man. It is right his purity and kind that give William the chance to defame him. As Du Juan writes in his works, “Silas is too kind to accept the fact, even though he realizes that he is slandered. Even when the church decides to use the lots to find out the truth, because of his kindness, he still believes that the God will prove his innocence.” 4 Additionally, since Silas is kind, when he recognizes that the shoemaker’s wife is ill and has all the signs of the illness which has killed his mother, Silas does not hesitate to give his hands to her and prepare some medicine for her which make her feel much better. Also, it is his kind that encourages him to adopt Eppie, the poor orphan who finally becomes his true joy of his life.

This is Silas Marner, the symbol of a lonely weaver who suffers enough from the misery but finally receives happiness for his kindheartedness. In a word, He is a symbol of the lower class, lonely but kindhearted.

Another key character is Godfrey, the eldest son of Squire Cass and the heir to the Cass estate. He is not an evil man, but accidentally all the major events occurred in the novel could be traced to Godfrey. From his appearance, he is a perfect rich man; but from his deeds, he actually possesses all the weakness of the upper class.

Godfrey is a symbol of coward. As a rich man, despite his physically powerful and graceful presence, Godfrey is unbelievably a coward. Because of his appetency, Godfrey falls into Dunstan’s wick trap and marriages Molly, an opium addict of the lower class. Godfrey is afraid that his father will disown him if the marriage comes to light, so he keeps it secret. What’s more, to cover this silly marriage, Godfrey has to satisfy Dunstan’s constant unreasonable requirements. He is afraid that the Squire inherits him and makes him become a poor working man of the rest of his life. And worse than that, it will be impossible for him to marry Nancy, his sweet heart. In Godfrey’s mind, “Living with fear in his heart, the fear of being discovered, is better than living without Nancy’s love.”5

Furthermore, Godfrey also symbolizes the selfishness widely exiting among the upper class. In fact, Godfrey does not intend to be bad, but he is selfish and unwilling to make sacrifices for what he knows to be right. Thus this leads to a series of accidents. He has no desire to harm anyone. However, all the misfortunes are caused by his selfishness. When Molly freezes to death on the way to Raveloe to expose their marriage to Godfrey’s family, Godfrey still have no courage to admit Molly and their child. He dose not feel a little worried about Molly’s death. On the contrary, he feels relieved. Since after that, nobody will recognize his dead wife, and soon his secret will be buried with her. The more important is that he will be free to marry Nancy and begin his happy life. As a father, Godfrey just watches his own daughter growing up in a relatively poor situation. The wealthy is so selfish to sacrifice others just to persue their own profits. So is Godfrey. He always takes it for granted to have a “right” but ignores its duty. As for his late self-realization to bring Eppie back, it is just the reason that he and Nancy are childless. He decides to own Eppie only in his will. This action exposes Godfrey’s selfishness again. His own desires still are the most important thing to him. At the same time, it also gives Godfrey a wonderful lesson. That is the fact that rights and duties cannot be separated.

The above discussion shows that Godfrey is a symbol of selfishness and cowardice. He is a classic figure in Silas Marner. He dose not have the courage to take responsibility for his acts nor give up his desires when they conflict with duty. All these make a full explanation to his cowardice and selfishness.

1.2 The Female Characters                                                                        

As to the symbolism of the female characters, two main characters, Eppie and Dolly will be discussed detailed in the following passages.

Eppie is the true joy of Silas Marner’s life. Initially, Silas is isolated himself from the outside after immigrating to Raveloe. He lives in a dark, loneliness, hopeless world. Eppie enters his life when he is in deep despair. At the moment when Silas first mistakes the little girl as his gold, Eppie replaces the weaver’s obsession with gold and becomes his spiritual companion and spends more time with Marner making his life meaningful and colorful. “Now something had come to replace his hoard which gave a growing purpose to the earnings, drawing his hope and joy continually onward beyond the money.”6 It is Eppie who is the symbol of Marner’s joys and happiness.

Moreover, Eppie symbolizes a life bridge for Silas to connect with the life of the community. This little angel opens a door for Silas to take part in the normal household. They are baptized together, and Silas finds that the child brings him closer to the other villagers. He goes to church with Eppie every week, like the Casses and most of villagers. “Because of Eppie, Silas is completely accepted in Raveloe now. And he even becomes a popular figure in the village.”7 While the gold separates him from the community, Eppie always acts as a bridge to get Silas and the villagers together. Besides, Eppie is regarded as a blessing of Silas and Godfrey. Eppie also establishes a connection between Silas and Godfrey, since Godfrey goes to talk with Silas about the adoption of Eppie. In fact, they are two kinds of people in different states. One is a rich man who cares nothing but himself. Another is a poor weaver who is regarded as an outsider. However, Eppie’s appearance gets them together. The former is Eppie’s own fathers and the latter is Eppies’s stepfather. Moreover, at last the two classes of people meet each other in the argument of arising Eppie. Eppie provides a blessing link not only between Silas and the community, but between Godfrey and Silas as well.

Except for Eppie, Dolly is another female figure to be discussed. She is symbolized as the Goddess who saves the needed to get ride of the diffculties. In Silas Marner, Dolly acts as a female Christian, in other words, a figure who has the ability to save the soul of human beings. After Silas lost his gold, this tender woman gives her help for this poor man at the same time. She suggests Silas to go to church, wash himself, or cook a little piece of meat on Sunday instead of working at home. Her purity, tenderness and consideration are impressed on Silas. Generally, Silas accepts her kindness, even asks her for help in caring little Eppie. Dolly persuades Silas to have the child baptized and reminds him of a “Christened name” for Eppie. Except for Eppie’s arrival, Dolly’s patient persuasion also makes an important influence on Silas’s recovery of “religious faith” and the progress of accepting the community. From Silas’s point of view, unlike the old religion which falsely changes his life, the religious faith delivered by Dolly dominates the characteristic of human nature, which is “love” and “sympathy”. Thus, Dolly is served as a noble figure who offers help to those needed both in material and in spirit.

To sum up, the widely usage of symbolism in Silas Marner contributes to portray these main images vividly and deeply. It not only delivers the differences between two classes, but also gives full explanation to the theme of the novel, that is, good is rewarded with good and evil will be requited with evil.

 

Chapter Two  The Symbolism of the Objects

 

In Silas Marner, many ordinary objects appear repeatedly, such as the loom, the gold, the house and the door. They take their usual duties in the daily life. However, since Eliot is a skilled employer of symbolism. The ordinary objects in her hands have been endowed with extraordinary meanings.

2.1 The Loom and the Gold

Symbolism is often represented by objects in literary works to maintain more meanings. In Silas Marner, George Eliot uses objects to represent certain ideas. The loom and the gold are the two important symbols in the novel.

From one hand, Silas’s loom symbolizes his material and spiritual supporter. In the novel, the Loom is Silas’s important tool to make a living and it appears frequently in describing Silas lonely life. For Silas, the loom is his livelihood and source of income. At that time, the loom can lead a relatively comfortable lifestyle for Silas. He does not need to worry about the livelihood since the loom can learn him enough gold for him to ensure his life. When he lives in the Lantern Yard, he earns less, except his own use and Silas, the kind-hearted man, still gives much of his money to the chapel, to the old, the poor and the sick. Nevertheless, after losing religious faith and trust on people, the only thing he does every day is to weave at the loom and to be together with no one but the loom day and night, earning herds of gold. Then, the loom is not only a source of income but also a kind of companion.

The loom is the symbol of the English Industrial Revolution and the dull and lonely life of the workers of the time. The loom is a machine which is produced in the time of the English Industrial Revolution. Its appearance in the small village far from the cities shows the widely use of advanced mechanical labor and the flowering time of the Movement. Additionally, the loom which stays in the corner of the room all the time and keeps working all the day symbolizes Silas’s boring and lonesome life. Silas lacks of communication with the neighbors and the only thing he focuses every day is to work at the loom weaving. Just like what Eliot describes in the novel, the loom leads him to a kind of insect life.

On the other hands, Silas’s gold is considered as the crucial symbolism of both a killer of his happiness and a kind of entrustment. The gold goes throughout the whole story and effects its development. Silas’s greedy desire for money reinforces his loneliness because it is right the gold that generally forces him to lose the human nature and degenerate to an insect life, working all the time at the loom and weaving for gold, which has deprived his right to pursue the happiness in life. The gold is also the symbol of Silas’s belief, his spiritual entrustment. After the betrayal by his friend and the unjust treatment of the church members, not only is Silas driven to a desperate world, but also loses his faith in church. He spends all the time in weaving and making more money. He hoards piles of gold at home. To be surprised, he is poor enough to have nothing to do but obsessively counting his coins. Just as what Eliot writes, “His gold has become a habit, a delight, a reason for living, almost a religion.”8 He enjoys the shinning appearance of the gold coins and looks and touches them joyfully. The lovely gold is the joyful source of his spiritual world. However, the lifeless and cold gold isolates him from the world outside. The higher piles of gold grow the lonelier Silas feels.

The gold is also symbolized as the death of Dunstan. With unbelievable high debt, Danstan is in hot water. The gold stimulates Dunstan’s greedy. Then, he steals the gold which is saved up by Silas so many years. No far from Silas’s cottage, Danstan falls into the pit and dies. The behavior of gaining the gold costs Danstan’s life. So, it is the gold that leads to Dunstan’s death.

2.2 The House

In Silas Marner, two kinds of houses are described by the author: the handsome Red House opposite the church and the poor cottage in the old quarry. Here the houses are not merely kinds of solitary or lifeless buildings; they have been endowed with new meanings, having their own characters as various as human beings. To some extents, the descriptions of the houses, in fact, remark the states of their owners.

Silas’s cottage is the symbol of loneliness. Far from the center of the country, the cottage is located at an old quarry. “Silas Marner worked at his vocation in a stone cottage that stood among the nutty hedgerows near the village of Raveloe, and not from the edge of a deserted stone-pit.”9 From its location and appearance, the loneliness is described incisively and vividly. As for its interior, the cottage is also lonely. There is little furniture, just a bed, the loom, three chairs and a table. The cottage is poor, lonely, and cold. The loneliness of the cottage implies the endless solitude hidden in Silas.

However, the cottage absolutely changes when Eppie falls into the cottage like an angle. Now, it symbolizes love and happiness. Happily the sunshine irradiates into the cottage. Little by little, the cottage turns into a kind of wonderful life full of warmth and hope. Different from the previous bleak and lonely state, it is brightened by the strength of love. The present condition of the stone cottage changes at the same time. “There was no bed now in the living-room, and the small space was well filled with decent furniture, all bright and clean enough to satisfy Dolly’s eye. The oaken table and three-cornered oaken chair were hardly what was likely to be seen in so poor a cottage.”10 The bright, clean and well-decorated living room implies a better living condition and happier life. With the companion of Eppie, Silas also becomes a happy old man. Thus, with the arrival of Eppie, the little cottage opens its door, and welcomes visitors from the village and enjoys the joys and happiness of the world.

On the other hand, the Red House is a symbol of nobility and wealthy. Firstly, the Red House possesses the most gorgeous appearance. The greatest man in Raveloe was Squire Cass, who lived in the large red house with the handsome flight of stone steps in front and the high stables behind it, nearly opposite the church.”11 These descriptions display a lordly building in front of the readers. Different from Marner’s isolated cottage, the Red House lies in the center of the village. Its location reflects its nobility. Secondly, its nobility and wealthy also can be indicated clearly from the people who live in it. They are rich and lead a comfortable life.

 

He[Squire Cass] was only one among several landed parishioners, but he alone was honoured with the title of Squire; for though Mr. Osgood's family was also understood to be of timeless origin--the Raveloe imagination having never ventured back to that fearful blank when there were no Osgoods--still, he merely owned the farm he occupied; whereas Squire Cass had a tenant or two….12

 

As what the above passage mentioned, the owner of the house, Squire Cass has the richest property and the most aristocratic status. The family members of the Red House lead a luxurious life. The Cass family often hold parties. Everybody in the village is invited to come for the entertainment it. Some people are eating, while others are dancing or playing cards. Thus, a conclusion can be drawn that the Red House is symbolized as nobility and wealthy.

Even though the two kinds of houses have utterly different shapes and represent different classes, they all reveal the spiritual state of their owners, no matter the poor or the aristocracy. These symbols make great differences in reflecting the different social classes in Silas Marner.

2.3 The Open Door

In Silas Marner, the door is not merely a part of the buildings, and it has many symbolic meanings. Silas’s open door serves as a symbol of the turning point for the life of Silas and Eppie.

 Firstly, the open door symbolizes Silas’s hope for an open mind to the world, which shows Silas’s change from his isolated life. After the gold is stolen, Silas stands at the open door. In one sense, he stands there with the door open with the hope that the gold may be sent back by someone in the village. In another sense, the open door indicates symbolically that Silas decides to open himself up to the outside world from which he has lived apart for so long, and expects a newly soul to awaken the sympathy hidden in mind. Slias is eager to get help from the villagers and he hopes that they can help him find his gold. In this way, Silas regains his communication with people around him and changes his lonely life. So, the open door is Marner’s turning point from isolation to communication.

Secondly, the open door is the symbol of Marner’s and Eppie’s happiness. Marner’s lonely life is changed with the coming of Eppie through the open door. In the novel, because of the false accusation of Silas’s best friend, William, the unjust decision of the church members and the betrayal of Marner’s fiancée, Marner leaves his hometown and settles down in the isolated stone cottage outside the village, Raveloe, living an isolated, lonely and insensitive life. Yet, with the arrival of Eppie, his life changes because in order to raise Eppie, he begins to communicate with the neighbors, and he gains great joys and happiness with Eppie’s growing up. So, the open door changes Silas’s life completely. At the same time, Eppie’s life goes quite differently. Her mother, Molly, dies on the windy and snowy Christmas Eve. Eppie is in her mother’s arms. After the death of the mother, 

 

The child… toddled on to the open door of Silas Marner’s cottage, and right up to the warm hearth, where there was a bright fire of logs and sticks…squatted down on the sack, and spread its tiny hands toward the blaze, in perfect contentment, gurgling and making many inarticulate communications to the cheerful fire…. But presently the warmth had a lulling effect, and the little golden head sank down on the old sack, and the blue eyes were veiled by their delicate half-transparent lids.13

 

The above paragraph tells that if the door was not open, Eppie would not have entered the cottage, and then the little would die in the cold weather. As soon as she enters through the open door, she gets joys and warmth, far away from death. With the adoption, Eppie leads a happy life. Hence, the open door is the symbol of rebirth both for Marner and Eppie and is symbolized as “the Door of the Fate”. 

Symbolism is a kind of artistic styles. It is a catalyst to turn commonness into profundity. These objects are not just inanimate. They act as Eliot’s speaker to remind the readers of the themes of the novel. These usual objects in the daily life, however, all contain different symbolisms, making the novel meaningful.

 

Chapter Three  The Symbolism of the Natural Environment

 

Every event looks so shocked and touched since it happens in certain special environment. In this situation, the key event makes a deep impression on readers as well as its unique atmosphere. Skilled as the author, Eliot, she takes the advantage of the symbolism of environment in Silas Marner.

3.1 The Climate

Throughout the novel, there are four detailed descriptions shown in Silas Marner which imply certain meanings and ideas separately.

Firstly, mist and rain not only are metaphors of wicked hands to shelter the darkness, also act as the judge to punish the evil. They have double meanings. On one hand, they act as an awful veil to help the evil plan be carried on. It serves as a powerful strength to punish the evil deeds. As Danstan steals into Silas’s house and takes away all of the poor man’s gold coins, the whole countryside is covered by a thick mist. This provides the theft with a perfect opportunity to carry out his evil plan. Dark and mist, as their literal meaning illustrate, weave a piece of awful veil in the sky of the country. Exactly, the rain is falling heavily outside. Carrying the heavy bags, Danstan steps forward into the rain. As soon as he leaves the weaver’s cottage, Danstan finally falls into pit in the old quarry and dies with the heavy gold. The rain enforces the terrible effect of the theft, foiling the ironic situation Danstan stays in. The rain even performs a kind of righteous strength, punishing the evil deeds in the world.

Then, the heavy snow symbolizes a kind of evil strength to cover the wicked deeds. It snows when Molly, Godfrey’s secret wife, walks with slow, uncertain steps on the road to Raveloe to confront Godfrey. It is already 7 o’clock in the evening, and there is a freezing wind. The heavily snow aggravates the tragic color of the figures. Molly, the beautiful woman, now falls into endless misery. Until her death in the snow, nobody in Raveloe would recognize her existence. It snows heavily. The snow not only covers Molly’s cold body, but also hides Godfrey’s wicked deeds. Since then, the selfish man is released. Nobody would know the secret marriage between Godfrey and Molly. Snow is not only its denotation, and it also evolutes into a stream of wicked strength, covering the wicked deeds into the ground forever. 

Different from the snow mentioned above, the snow also reinforces the loneliness of Silas. After Silas rejects the cares from the warm-hearted neighbors, the cold grey sky appears into his eyes. It begins to snow again, and he feels more distant and separate from his neighbors.

 

Silas spent his Christmas-day in loneliness, eating his meat in sadness of heart, though the meat had come to him as a neighborly present. In the morning he looked out on the black frost that seemed to press cruelly on every blade of grass, while the half-icy red pool shivered under the bitter wind; but towards evening the snow began to fall, and curtained from him even that dreary outlook, shutting him close up with his narrow grief. And he sat in his robbed home through the livelong evening, not caring to close his shutters or lock his door, pressing his head between his hands and moaning, till the cold grasped him and told him that his fire was grey.14

 

The above descriptions imply Marner’s desperate loneliness vividly. In fact, when settling down in the small village, Marner is ready for the isolated life. However, it seems that the God does not bless him any more. He loses the gold. The neighbors show their sympathies for him. However, he refuses as usual. Then it begins to snow. And the loneliness occupies his mind. The description of the climate dominates the strength of loneliness. There is no man lonelier than Silas.

Lastly, the sun is symbolized as warmth, hope and happiness. The sun rises in the end of the novel. It indicates the wonderful future and a kind of warmth and hopes. As Eppie is wearing the beautiful white wedding dress she has always dreamed of, happily the sunshine falls more warmly than usual on the lilac tufts. The sunrise tells that all the misfortunes and hardships have past. What waits for them is endless happiness. The sunrise delivers a spring of happiness and hope to the world, indicating the coming of more wonderful moments in their lives.

3.2 The Plants

Silas Marner displays a kind of rural life. Raveloe is located among the bushy trees and the rutted lanes. Unavoidably, the description of plants occupies considerable position in the novel. Moreover, they are endowed with plenty of symbolic meanings.

Nutty hedgerows and brambles indicate isolation and hardships in Silas’s life.

 

Nothing could be more unlike his native town, set within sight of the widespread hillsides, than this low, wooded region, where he felt hidden even from the heavens by the sc reening trees and hedgerows.; there was nothing here, when he rose in the deep morning quiet and looked out on the dewy brambles and rank tufted grass, that seemed to have any relation with that life centering in Lantern Yard…15

 

These descriptions about trees and hedgerows stress Silas’s isolation. After losing faith in human beings, Silas utterly leads an isolated life. He almost does not contact with the outside. These plants also provide him with an opportunity to forget his previous life and painful memories. Literally, brambles clustered are easy to block the road. In the novel, they are metaphors of difficult situation. Silas Marner’s stone cottage rightly lies among the nutty hedgerows and brambles. These brambles imply the hardships Silas meets in his early life. For example, when Dunstan breaks into his cottage and steals his gold, the nutty hedgerows and brambles witness the wick moment in the dark. The brambles reflect all the misfortunes of the weaver.

Besides, another important plant in Silas Marner is the furze bush. It is a symbol of endless pain. Furze bushes have mostly compound leaves with three leaflets and showy with thorn-like pointed tip, usually bright yellow flowers. It is considered as “the Dream of Love”. Ironically, in the helpless night, Molly, once beautiful woman, regards it as an easy pillow at the last moment of her life. It snows heavily that day. Tired and cold, Molly stops and sinks down against a struggling furze bush. Then she dies. The furze bush supports the sorrow and pity in Molly. Several years later, the furze bush blooms in Eppie’s garden. It occupies amazing vitality. As Eppie says in the novel, “We shall take the furze bush into the garden. It will come into the corner, and just against it I will put snowdrops and crocuses. Because Aaron says they won’t die out, but’ll always get more and more.”16 Furze bush accompanies Eppie’s growth, just like her mother. Growing in Eppie’s little garden, it also indicates Eppie’s endless longing for her mother.

The garden symbolizes a happy and bright future of the family. After experiencing hardships and joys, a garden is built. This is Eppie’s little garden. The garden is filled with many kinds of flowers, representing her wonderful expectations for the future. In the garden, Eppie and Silas will have double daises, a deal livelier at the stone-pits. These flowers bloom happily in the garden. They serve as Eppie’s hope for a better life. In Eppie’s opinion, “The flower can see them and know what they are talking about. Besides, they will have a bit rosymarry and bergamot and thyme, because they are so sweet-smelling. Then, there is a big bed of lavenders.”17 These flowers indicate purity, happiness, love and fairness. Living among the flowers, it is sure that Silas and her little angel will have flourishing future.

To sum up, the skilled usage of the symbolism of the natural environment makes a big difference in implying the theme of the novel. It also helps romance a kind of mysterious atmosphere. Through the detailed description of natural environment, Eliot spreads her unique concept of human beings.

 

 

Conclusion

 

As “mine masterpiece” of George Eliot, Silas Marner gives more pleasure to the modern readers than any of her other works. Fresh and mellow, however, Silas Marner outstands by its no literal historical greatness. Thus Silas Marner is considered by some critics to be the mark of a change in style of George Eliot. The works of Eliot becomes classic for its artistic writing styles. In Silas Marner, symbolism, one kind of Eliot’s skilled writing styles, is abundant throughout the whole novel. Each symbol represents major theme of the story.

The study on the symbolism of the characters shapes various kinds of vivid figures in front of the readers. Male and female characters are mentioned in the discussion. For example, Silas Marner, a poor lower working class character, also is a pioneer in spreading the advanced knowledge and technology. As soon as Eppie appears as an angel, she becomes Silas’s source of happiness. With the usage of symbolism, the characters in the novel are endowed with vivid and profound spirit. In Silas Marner, Eliot also chooses a few kinds of objects to go through the household life. The cold and shinning gold turns into the physical companion while the loom foreshadows the coming of industrialization. These objects functioning well their efficacy, give the readers more knowledge about the significance of the novel. Likewise, Eliot also does well in the detailed description of natural environment. Every event happens in a certain atmosphere. In Silas Marner, the natural environment, no matter the climate or the plants, are all contains meaningful metaphors. The discussions on the symbolism of natural environment also give the reader further knowledge about the theme of the novel.

Generally speaking, through these chapters, by and large, this thesis succeeds in revealing the significant meaning of symbols. Without Eliot’s skillful implementation of these symbols, the reader would be lost in the pages of the novel and would not understand the major social impacts of Silas Marner. Moreover, this point of view still invites further exploration. So, continuous and harder studies are needed in order to have a better comprehension and appreciation of George Eliot’s works.

 

 

 

 

Notes

 

1.       吴伟仁,英国文学及选读(外语教学及研究出版社, 1988.

2.       George Eliot Silas MarnerLondon: Wordsworth Editions, 19999.

3.       Ibid. p.18

4.       杜隽,乔治·艾略特小说的伦理批评(上海:学林出版社,200678.

5.       George EliotSilas MarnerLondon: Wordsworth Editions, 199928.

6.       Ibid. p.111

7.       Ibid. p.106

8.       Ibid. p.16

9.       Ibid. p. 2

10.   Ibid. p.117

11.   Ibid. p.20

12.   Ibid. p.20

13.   Ibid. p.115

14.   Ibid. p.69

15.   Ibid. p.24

16.   Ibid. p.122

17.   Ibid. p.122

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

Eliot, George. Silas Marner. London: Wordsworth Editions, 1999.

S. Haight, Gordon. The George Eliot Letters. London: Oxford University Press, 1954.

Albert Macy, John. 孙青玥 . 文学史纲 [M]. 陕西: 陕西师范大学出版社,2006.

Bennet, John. George Eliot – Her Mind and Her Art. London: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Fisher, Philip. Making Up Society: The Novel of George Eliot. London: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1981.

崔东. 织工马南传看艾略特的宗教思想[J]. 外国文学研究 2000年第01.

杜隽. 乔治·艾略特小说的伦理批评 [M]. 上海:学林出版社,2006.

侯维瑞. 英国文学通史 [M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2006.

李安. 论《织工马南传》的孤独主题 [J]. 外国文学研究 2004年第01.

马立. 从《织工马南》看费尔巴哈的宗教思想对乔治·爱略特的影响 [J]. 江西科技师范学院学报 200805.

马建军. 乔治·艾略特研究 [M]. 湖北:武汉大学出版社, 2007.

苏联科学院编. 英国文学史 [M]. 北京:人民文学出版社,1986.

吴伟仁. 英国文学及选读 [M]. 外语教学及研究出版社, 1988.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

邮政编码:056005 冀ICP备05002795号 邯郸学院外国语学院